Essay/Term paper: Hinduism and buddhism
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Hinduism and Buddhism
Hinduism and Buddhism are two of the five major religions in our world
today. They are widely practiced, and have survived for centuries. Both have
similarities and differences, as do all forms of religion. Hopefully, in this
paper I will show you the basic structure of each religion. I would also like to
show how they compare and contrast.
No one is completely sure of where Hinduism was started and by whom.
Their oldest written documents, the Vedas, were written down in 1000 B.C. but
they had existed orally long before. The Vedas are where Hinduism originated.
Today, Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. Many changes have come
upon Hinduism since they practiced it first. Hinduism includes many different
sects, or denominations, and beliefs that have arisen. Though, there are many
things in common with all of the Hindu sects. Their basic beliefs are what ties
The religion of Hinduism teaches us that each living body, including
animals, is filled with an eternal soul. Hindus say that the individual soul was
a part of the creator spirit, Brahma. It is each soul's job and wish eventually
to return to Brahma. It is not possible though because by a soul's sins, and
impurities from the world, they are no longer pure and holy to return. Instead,
a soul must become pure before returning to Brahma, who is absolutely pure.
The process of becoming pure is so hard that no soul can become pure in
only one lifetime. The soul is forced to live life after life until it is pure
enough to return to Brahma. The cycles of rebirths are called samsara, or the
Wheel of Life, by the Hindus. When a soul is finally cleansed enough to break
free of samsara it is called moksha. The soul returns to Brahma for an eternity
of contentment and ecstasy.
There is no one incorporating creed in Hinduism. A follower may choose
any god as their personal god, or may worship several of them. Though to be a
Hindu there are certain things that a follower must believe in and live by.
Their main beliefs are:
1. A belief in karma, the result of one's good and bad deeds in a
2. A belief in dharma, Hindu traditions.
3. A belief in the three main gods: Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva.
4. A belief in reincarnation after death.
5. Honor for the sacred Vedas.
6. A belief that, if lived a religious life, the Wheel of Life can end
and achieve moksha.
7. An honor for an ascetic religious life, to be an orthodox Hindu.
Hindus worship many gods, but they are truly monotheistic by believing
in a single god. The reason behind this is that everything comes from Brahman.
It does not matter who the worship is for because it is ultimately Brahman.
Brahman does not reward or punish those for their deeds in life. Every soul
creates their own rewards and punishments through karma. Karma rules what each
soul will be in its next life, and it is formed from a soul's good and bad deeds
in each life. If a soul has had more good deeds than bad deeds, then they have
good karma. Or vice versa if they have had more bad deeds than good.
Dharma is the ultimate meritorious balance of all things living. It
belongs to everything, including the universe. Every soul is responsible for
balancing their dharma. The areas to balance in dharma are religious, social,
and within the family. They must keep promises, and remain faithful to religious
rituals, while also taking care of their family. If a soul loses this balance,
then it will affect their karma. Dharma has been called tradition, duty, and a
custom, but to a Hindu it is spiritually more than that. Hindus also follow a
caste system, resulted from dharma, which I will discuss later.
There are three main gods in Hinduism. Many others exist in the religion,
but these are the most noteworthy. Brahma is the creator of life. Vishnu is
known as the preserver of life. You might pray to Vishnu if someone you knew was
going in for surgery so that they'll come through it with no problems. Finally,
Siva, or Shiva is the destroyer of life. All three of these gods are portrayed
as female and male. Vishnu is more often a male, and Shiva is more often a
The Caste System-
The society of Hinduism is strictly divided. The different levels,
called castes, do not mingle. The division is largely due to the practices of
dharma and karma. Both practices express the idea that if someone is born into a
specific lifestyle, they must stay there. It would be bad karma to attempt to
leave that lifestyle.
In the caste system, there are four levels along with two groups that
are apart from the castes. Every caste comes from Brahma, but each is from a
different body part. The highest level is the Brahmin. It means Brahman, but is
spelled in another way to resist confusion of Brahman, the creator spirit.
Brahmin comes from his head, and they are to be the voice of Brahma. They are
the priestly caste, but many are also teachers and keepers of the religion.
Today, many Brahmins are also involved in business and government.
The second level of castes is the Kshatriyas (warrior) caste. They were
the kings and soldiers, and come from Brahma's arms. The third level is the
Vaisyas. They come from the thighs of Brahma, and occupy the jobs of merchants,
artisans, and farmers. The fourth and final caste is Sudras. These people are
the manual workers, represented by Brahma's feet. It is considered a sin to
associate with people of a lower caste than you. So each caste is made up of a
different level of the society.
There are also two groups outside the caste system. One group is for
foreigners. They might be a nonbeliever or anyone who receives special treatment
from the Hindu society. The second "outcaste" group is the "Untouchables." These
people are considered nonhuman and cannot participate in any Hindu practices.
They do the work no one wants to do and do not associate with anyone that is of
a higher caste.
Buddhism was founded by Siddartha Gautama, and he became the Buddha. His
intentions were not to form a new religion, only to modify an older one.
Brahmanism, or Hinduism, had become very orthodox. Siddartha was a minor king of
northern India. One day, he ventured outside the palace walls and saw how life
really was. Inspired, Siddartha left his home, and family to look for the
meaning of life. For years he listened to and studied with the Indian wise men;
then he turned to meditation. Discouraged from not finding the answer he wanted,
he sat under a fig tree. Siddartha determined that he sat there until he found
the answer, this lasted 49 days. It finally came to him, and he became Buddha.
Buddhism was founded.
Buddhism is a reformed version of Hinduism. Buddha discovered the Four
Noble Truths. The Four Noble Truths are the foundation for all forms of Buddhist
1. There is suffering.
2. Suffering is caused.
3. Eliminating the causes of suffering can extinguish suffering.
4. The way to extinguish the causes of suffering is to follow the Middle
Way stated in the Eightfold Path.
The Eightfold Path also comes from Buddha. It teaches to practice
moderation. It is the practical side of Buddhism. If followed, one may achieve
true enlightenment, or nirvana. Nirvana is reaching Brahma in one lifetime.
Buddha believed that you could live a perfect life and not have to continue in
the samsara. The basic way to this is the Eightfold Path, which says to practice
moderation in these areas:
1. Right views. You must have the right mind set.
2. Right intent (or right resolution) A person must want actively to
3. Right speech. You must not lie, slander others, or insult. You're not
to cause suffering with words.
4. Right conduct (or right action). To behave in a way that does not
5. Right means of livelihood. Not to live in a way or hold a job that
6. Right endeavor (or right effort) To prevent unclean states of mind
7. Right mindfulness. To be aware of body activities, the senses,
perceptions, and thoughts.
8. Right meditation. The specific concentration to improve oneself.
Buddhists believe that if you follow this you will be enlightened. Many
Buddhist beliefs are almost the same as a Hindu's. Buddhists do not practice the
caste system. One of the only ways to achieve nirvana in one lifetime is to be a
monk or a nun. If you break an area in the Eightfold Path, then you cannot
achieve nirvana. Also in order to follow the 4th part of The Eightfold Path, all
Buddhists are vegetarians. Killing of an animal is seen as causing suffering.
Like the Hindus, an animal has a soul.
Despite all the talk about suffering, Buddhism is really about the
absence of suffering. Buddhism is a way to develop the ability to love the
entire universe, simply because it is. It is understanding that the universe
exits inside a blade of grass, just as the blade of grass resides within the
universe. All things are inter-connected.
Comparisons Between Hinduism and Buddhism-
Both Hinduism and Buddhism accept and believe that there is one creator
spirit. Each of them recognizes Brahma or a version of Brahma as the creator
spirit. Though they also recognize other gods, Brahma is the ultimate god. All
praise goes to him, no matter which god you are praising. This is a significant
similarity between the two religions.
The two religions of Hinduism and Buddhism believe in the process of
reincarnation. Reincarnation is being reborn again with one soul. Inside this
belief, they also believe that your deeds, or activities, during your life will
determine where you will end up. If you have lived a good life, you will be
rewarded by another good life, or you might be allowed finally to rejoin with
Brahma. If you've led a bad life, you will remain on earth longer, and most
likely have a bad life when you are reborn.
Another similarity is that both Hinduism and Buddhism are very kind to
animals. They believe every living creature has a soul, and through
reincarnation, you might one day end up as one. Most Hindus and Buddhists that
strictly follow the religion are vegetarians of one sort or another. It's
impossible to tell whether or not that hamburger you ate at Burger King was a
relative of yours. Eating them would bring you bad karma, and break one of the
Contrasts Between Hinduism and Buddhism-
In the religion of Hinduism there are castes, or social classes. They
decide what your lifestyle will be like in that lifetime. If you are born a
slave, you must stay a slave your whole life. Or, if you are born a wealthy man
or woman, that is what you must be all of your life. To the Hindus, it is a sin
to try to change what caste you belong to. As well as to associate with a person
from a caste that is lower than yours.
On the other hand, the teachings of the Buddha did away with the caste
system. A person is allowed to change their social class. They can go from a
slave to an emperor or a president, if that is their calling. If they follow the
Eightfold Path, then this is permissible. It is an honor to be a monk or a nun,
for they are the ones who can achieve nirvana. Buddhists also will mingle with
those of less importance then themselves.
Hinduism teaches that you must go through samsara in order to finally
reach moksha. They do not believe that a soul can totally cleanse itself of all
impurities in just one life. It is a gradual process involving dharma, balancing
one's life, and karma, weighing the deeds of a lifetime.
Meanwhile, the Buddha again went and brought question to samsara. He
found that it is possible to cleanse oneself in one lifetime and return to
Brahma. He called it nirvana. In order to achieve nirvana, a Buddhist must
follow and accept The Four Noble Truths, and the Eightfold Path. The Eightfold
Path serves as an instructional guide as how to keep yourself on the right path
Hinduism and Buddhism also have several smaller differences. The area of
greatest concentration for Hinduism is India. India is where Buddhism originated,
but Hinduism eventually was a more appealing religion and it died out. Buddhism
is found mostly in East Asia, inside China and Mongolia. These areas prefer
having many, many small gods, as opposed to the Hindus only having three major
ones and then smaller, less important gods. Buddhism was founded by Suddartha
Gautama, or the Buddha. Hinduism was started gradually; no one knows for sure
who founded it; most likely, it was many people. Both practice meditation, but
they practice it in different forms. A Hindu will meditate obtaining inner peace
through the charkras of the body. Once all of the centers, charkras, have been
balanced, a white light is said to be above the person's head, and they are
enlightened. Buddhists meditate similarity, but have different variations of how
it is preformed. Their main goal is to end suffering.
The two religions of Buddhism and Hinduism are very alike, and yet very
different. To accept their way of thinking, one must put aside their religion if
they aren't Hindu or a Buddhist. They strive for an inner peace, and finally to
reach heaven through either moksha or nirvana. I being a Christian, have found
in some ways it hard to understand the process of reincarnation, and Brahma.
Though, I can see how that for people of another culture, these religions are
very supportive, and soothing. Culture plays a big part in determining your
beliefs. Obviously, they are very deep-rooted for surviving for longer than
Christianity's been around. Through this paper, I learned a lot about accepting
different beliefs, and gained a sense of what it really means to be a Hindu or a
Buddhist. I admire their strong faith and their desire to become pure and
unblemished. Hinduism and Buddhism are two major religions, firmly planted in
their cultures, and I am sure that they will remain for a long time to come.
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There are many different religions in the world today. In Asia, Buddhism and Hinduism are the most popular beliefs in the general population. Hinduism is the oldest known religion and is very rich with literally hundreds of gods, symbolistic rituals and beliefs. It is believed to have been established around 1500 B.C. but one person never founded Hinduism as it evolved over a long period of time. Buddhism on the other hand has a definite founder, Siddhartha Gautama who is otherwise known as the Buddha or Enlightened One who lived from 565 to 483 B.C. Both these religions originated in India. Siddhartha Gautama was a Hindu who found Hindu theology lacking and after years of searching for truth created a religion now known as Buddhism. Because of these basic similarities, the two religions have much in common, but in the same light they differ immensely.
Hinduism and Buddhism both have numerous gods and both follow the same paths to ultimately achieve Nirvana (a place where all the enlightened beings reside). “He set himself forty-eight vows to fulfill, which, he proclaimed, would allow him to reach Nirvana.” (Encarta 98, “Amitabha,”) This is about one man who makes rules for himself so that he can get into Nirvana. The concept of a god or gods in Buddhism is almost void and therefore in the eyes of some not even a religion. Hindus have many gods governing different aspects of Hindu life. The three main gods in Hinduism are Vishnu who is the sustainer; Brahma is the creator and Shiva the destroyer. They are referred as Trimuti. Most Hindu gods are associated with animals and therefore Hindus feel that being a vegetarian is vital. Cows are sacred in Hinduism and are worshipped as the divine mother, making eating beef taboo. Buddhism involves meditation and prayer. In Buddhism, one must understand the four noble truths which are the truth of suffering, the truth of the origin of suffering, the truth of cessation, and the truth of the path. These all follow the Eightfold path, which describes the ways in which one must live. Hindu scriptures advocate the pursuit of many goals in ones life including righteous living, wealth, prosperity, love and happiness. The ultimate goal is to achieve Nirvana.
Following these steps and pleasing all these gods ensures ones ticket to achieving Nirvana.Both Hinduism and Buddhism have restrictions to the amount of freedom a woman can possess but a Buddhist woman has more freedom than a Hindu woman possesses. “‘All sentient beings are our fathers and mothers.’ Even someone who looks like a ruffian or a robber is still someone who has on his mind. ‘All mothers, all sentient beings.’ (Dalai Lama, Ocean of Wisdom, p.25) This means that every sentient being in Buddhism is equal to each other and all have a chance to reach enlightenment. In Buddhism the place of women is an inferior one, which stems from traditional, cultural, and social values of Asia. Although females can accumulate good karma, they have a harder time achieving enlightenment due to their social standing and their commitment to their family value. In Hinduism the role of women is downgraded as well and no act is to be done according to her will. A woman must always be cheerful and clever in the household business and keep the furniture well cleaned, meaning that she has to be cheerful and cannot get angry with the husband for doing anything. The woman must always have a free hand. She must have only one husband, even if he dies. If a woman commits adultery, she must be burned to death and all property a couple may acquire belongs to the male. Though both these religions have restrictions to women’s freedoms, a Buddhist female can do things more freely than a Hindu woman.Both religions believe that during life nonviolence is essential to reaching Nirvana. Buddhists preach compassion, charity and nonviolence and while Hindus profess pacifism and ahimsa, which is the avoidance of harm to people and animals, they still believe war is justifiable in certain cases. They see it as their duty to fight in a just war. Harming others is wrong but if the war will cause undo suffering to others, then violent acts are justifiable. “There is no greater good for a warrior than to fight in a righteous war.” (Bhagavad-Gita, Gita, 2:31) Many Buddhist beliefs and goals are similar if not the same as Hindu beliefs and goals. The concept in life that you should not act violently towards others is common to both religions, although they have some slight differences.
The concept of suffering and reincarnation is common in both religions. In Buddhism there is the concept of two extremes, one devoted to pleasure and lust and one devoted to mortification. Both are considered profitless and therefore one should take the middle path, which leads to insight. This means that people should not seek Nirvana too hard but should not seek it too little either. Hindus believe that life has no ultimate significance and is but a small part in a vast unending, and essentially meaningless cycle of life and death, and that everything has a soul or atman. Hindus believe in reincarnation and the transmigration of the soul and the concept of successive rebirths until one dwells in Brahman forever after the quest for the realization of truth. “The cycle of rebirths, samsara, is the very condition of all life. No existence escapes it, unless it gets to nirvana.” (Jean-Claude Carriere, The Power of Buddhism, p.189) This will eventually lead one to true happiness or salvation. Although pleasure in moderation is all right, a Hindu must remember that life is suffering (because of reincarnation) which is also taught in Buddhism.
Hinduism and Buddhism have different speeds of expansion. Hinduism had no real expansion over the years and basically remained stable where it originated despite the influence of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam. Hindus appreciated and were attracted by the stress on intricate worship, which in turn turned others away from Hinduism. Buddhist expansion on the other hand was massive, making a significant foothold in India, hundreds of monasteries sprang up and from these centers, the message of the Buddha was spread “Buddhism spread rapidly throughout the lands of its birth.” (Grolier 98, “Buddhism”) Gautama was a great “campaign manager” as he avoided the elaborate ideals of the Upanishads. Many Hindus were converted easily. The acceptance by the great emperor in 3 B.C. helped to promote growth and spread Buddhism into Ceylon and parts of Southeast Asia, also making headway in Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. By the sixth century, it spread to Nepal, Tibet, Mongolia, China, Korea and Japan. Buddhism one could say “sprouted” out of Hinduism. Hinduism stayed the same for a long time whereas Buddhism grew rapidly throughout the world.
Although Buddhism had a whole new meaning without any god and with these new ideals, one could argue that the backbone stems from its original “mother” Hinduism. No two religions are the exact same and it is good to have diverse religions so that people have a choice of which religion suits them.
Filed Under: India, Religion