Rubric assessments and instant grading top one enthusiastic music teacher’s charts. Angela Harman, an orchestra teacher in Spanish Fork, Utah, tells GradeCam how the rubric question option and embedding answer forms on her worksheets saves her precious time.
“GradeCam really does work for any subject.”
– Angela Harman
I use GradeCam for my orchestra classes and it saves me a ton of time on grading papers. One feature I have been really enjoying is the rubric option.
My school district focuses on student learning goals in the form of “I CAN” statements. We are required to post our “I CAN” statements before each lesson so students will be aware of what they should be able to do by the end of the class period, by the end of the week, or by the end of the term. It helps students understand the “why” behind each lesson and motivates students to focus on learning necessary skills.
For example, when teaching a lesson on dotted rhythms, I write on the board: “I CAN read, label and perform a dotted quarter note.” After focusing on this skill, I use GradeCam to help me determine if students have met the objective.
One thing I love about rubric-based assignments is students are assessing themselves. It helps students become aware of their strengths and weaknesses and pushes them to learn skills that may be lacking.
Once students complete the rubric it is easy to scan them into GradeCam where I can analyze the data to see if there are any trends that can help me improve my teaching.
For example, I might notice that many students marked (1) on the rubric for question 5 – meaning they did not understand what to do. I know I must re-teach the concept and do more to help students reach that learning target.
GradeCam rubrics can be used for a variety of skills in a music class. I use them to check for understanding on music terms, music theory, rhythm, note-reading, and performance. Here’s another example of a rubric embedded on a worksheet about note-reading:
To change all questions on an assignment to a rubric format, click on the check box at the left of the screen to select all bubbles. Next, click Edit (on the right menu bar) which will bring up a dialog box with options to change the format of the question.
For more on how to change the question type to Rubric, see a tutorial here.
I prefer to create my assignments with the GradeCam form embedded in the worksheet. That way, I can see student work and their responses on the same sheet of paper and students don’t have to worry about keeping track of more than one paper.
I use Microsoft Publisher to create my assignments. You can save your GradeCam form as a PNG file and download the file to your computer. You can then insert the image in any assignment you wish to create.
For more on how to generate answer forms, see a tutorial here.
Get creative and see what you can do with GradeCam in your music class!
Angela Harman teaches orchestra at Spanish Fork Junior High in Spanish Fork, Utah, where she has helped the orchestra program grow by over 440-percent. Angela is passionate about music education and is the founder of orchestraclassroom.com, where she posts ideas and methods that she uses in her classroom. Her recent books, “Be An Amazing Note-Reader” and “The True Beginning: Before the Method Book” have sold many copies worldwide through her website and her books are use to teach students in many countries.
Rubrics can be excellent tools to use when assessing students’ work for several reasons. You might consider developing and using rubrics if:
- You find yourself re-writing the same comments on several different students’ assignments.
- Your marking load is high, and writing out comments takes up a lot of your time.
- Students repeatedly question you about the assignment requirements, even after you’ve handed back the marked assignment.
- You want to address the specific components of your marking scheme for student and instructor use both prior to and following the assignment submission.
- You find yourself wondering if you are grading or commenting equitably at the beginning, middle, and end of a grading session.
- You have a team of graders and wish to ensure validity and inter-rater reliability.
What is a rubric?
A rubric is an assessment tool that clearly indicates achievement criteria across all the components of any kind of student work, from written to oral to visual. It can be used for marking assignments, class participation, or overall grades. There are two types of rubrics: holistic and analytical.
Holistic rubrics group several different assessment criteria and classify them together under grade headings or achievement levels.
For a sample participation rubric, see the Appendix of this teaching tip. Our Responding to Writing Assignments teaching tip includes holistic rubrics specifically designed for writing assignments. See also Facione and Facione's (1994) "Holistic Critical Thinking Rubric [PDF]," useful in many disciplines.
Analytic rubrics separate different assessment criteria and address them comprehensively. In a horizontal assessment rubric, the top axis includes values that can be expressed either numerically or by letter grade, or a scale from Exceptional to Poor (or Professional to Amateur, and so on). The side axis includes the assessment criteria for each component. Analytic rubrics can also permit different weightings for different components.
See the Teamwork VALUE Rubric [PDF], one of the many rubrics developed by the American Association of Colleges and Universities, or (AAC&U).
How to make a rubric
- Decide what criteria or essential elements must be present in the student’s work to ensure that it is high in quality. At this stage, you might even consider selecting samples of exemplary student work that can be shown to students when setting assignments.
- Decide how many levels of achievement you will include on the rubric and how they will relate to your institution's definition of grades as well as your own grading scheme.
- For each criterion, component, or essential element of quality, describe in detail what the performance at each achievement level looks like.
- Leave space for additional, tailored comments or overall impressions and a final grade.
Developing rubrics interactively with your students
You can enhance students’ learning experience by involving them in the rubric development process. Either as a class or in small groups, students decide upon criteria for grading the assignment. It would be helpful to provide students with samples of exemplary work so they could identify the criteria with greater ease. In such an activity, the instructor functions as facilitator, guiding the students toward the final goal of a rubric that can be used on their assignment. This activity not only results in a greater learning experience, it also enables students to feel a greater sense of ownership and inclusion in the decision making process.
How to use rubrics effectively
Develop a different rubric for each assignment
Although this takes time in the beginning, you’ll find that rubrics can be changed slightly or re-used later. If you are seeking pre-existing rubrics, consider Rhodes (2009) for the AAC&U VALUE rubrics, cited below, or Facione and Facione (1994). Whether you develop your own or use an existing rubric, practice with any other graders in your course to achieve inter-rater reliability.
Give students a copy of the rubric when you assign the performance task. These are not meant to be surprise criteria. Hand the rubric back with the assignment.
Integrate rubrics into assignments
Require students to attach the rubric to the assignment when they hand it in. Some instructors ask students to self-assess or give peer feedback using the rubric prior to handing in the work.
Leverage rubrics to manage your time
When you mark the assignment, circle or highlight the achieved level of performance for each criterion on the rubric. This is where you will save a great deal of time, as no comments are required.
Include any additional specific or overall comments that do not fit within the rubric’s criteria.
Be prepared to revise your rubrics
Decide upon a final grade for the assignment based on the rubric. If you find, as some do, that presented work meets criteria on the rubric but nevertheless seems to have exceeded or not met the overall qualities you’re seeking, revise the rubric accordingly for the next time you teach the course. If the work achieves highly in some areas of the rubric but not in others, decide in advance how the assignment grade is actually derived. Some use a formula, or multiplier, to give different weightings to various components; be explicit about this right on the rubric.
Consider developing online rubrics
If an assignment is being submitted to an electronic drop box you may be able to develop and use an online rubric. The scores from these rubrics are automatically entered in the online grade book in the course management system.
Facione, P. & Facione, N. (1994). The holistic critical thinking rubric [PDF]. Insight Assessment/California Academic Press.
Rhodes, T. (2009). Assessing outcomes and improving achievement: Tips and tools for using the rubrics. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
CTE teaching tips
- Huba, M. E., & Freed, J.E. (2000). Using rubrics to provide feedback to students. In Learner-centered assessment on college campuses (pp. 151-200). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
- Lewis, R., Berghoff, P., & Pheeney, P. (1999). Focusing students: Three approaches for learning through evaluation. Innovative Higher Education, 23(3), 181-196.
- Luft, J. A. (1999). Rubrics: Design and use in science teacher education. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 10(2), 107-121.
- Stevens, D. & Levi, A. (2013). Introduction to rubrics: An assessment tool to save grading time, convey effective feedback, and promote student learning (2nd ed.). Virginia: Sylus.
- Stevens, D., & Levi, A. Introduction to rubrics companion site.
- iRubric: an online rubric design system for using, adapting, creating, and sharing rubrics.
- Association of American Colleges & Universities VALUE rubrics
Appendix: sample holistic participation rubric
- Always prepared and attends nearly every class
- Participates constructively in class, models leadership for others and on teams
- Exhibits preparedness and punctuality in class/class work
- Demonstrates initiative and improvement without prompting
- Seeks to understand and acknowledge others’ thoughts
- Often reaches full potential by challenging self
- Exceptional content knowledge readily integrated into new problems or settings
- Challenges his/her own thoughts and ideas
- Usually prepared and attends most classes
- Participates constructively in class, works well with others, and is a team player
- Excellent content knowledge
- Completes all class assignments; occasionally adds something extra
- Demonstrates initiative and improvement with some prompting
- Seeks to understand and acknowledge others’ thoughts
- Stretches to reach full potential when prompted
- Open to challenges to thoughts and ideas from others
- Sometimes prepared and attends many classes
- Average content knowledge
- Occasionally or only challenges thought when encouraged by others
- Assignments reflect average work
- Sometimes an active participant in class; works fairly well with others
- Occasionally accepts and attends to challenges and feedback
- Rarely prepared and attends some classes
- Rarely participates constructively in class
- Assignments are late, incomplete, or not turned in at all
- Low level of content knowledge
- Inactive participant; works reluctantly with others
- Sometimes shows a close-minded disposition with regard to feedback and challenge
- Clearly unprepared and nearly always absent
- No participation or harmful participation
- No assignments turned in
- No assignments available to assess content knowledge
- Not present enough to judge participation and interaction, or undermining others
- Close-minded disposition with regard to feedback, challenge, and course content
This Creative Commons license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon our work non-commercially, as long as they credit us and indicate if changes were made. Use this citation format: Rubrics: useful assessment tools. Centre for Teaching Excellence, University of Waterloo