K 12 Program Thesis Statements

Bybee, R. 2009. K–12 Engineering Education Standards: Opportunities and Barriers. Paper presented at the NAE Workshop on Standards for K–12 Engineering Education, July 8, 2009, Washington, D.C. Available online at http://www.nae.edu/Programs/TechLit1/K12stds/WorkshoponStandardsforK–12EngineeringEducation/15165.aspx. (January 22, 2010)

Corcoran, T., F.A. Mosher, and A. Rogat. 2009. Learning Progressions in Science: An Evidence-Based Approach to Reform. Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE). CPRE Research Report #RR-63. Philadelphia, PA: CPRE.

DeBoer, G. 2006. History of the science standards movement in the United States. Pp. 7–49 in The Impact of State and National Standards on K–12 Science Teaching, D. Sunal and E. Wright, eds. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

DeVries, M.J. 2009. Report for NAE on non-U.S. Standards for Pre-university Engineering Education. Paper presented at the NAE Workshop on Standards for K–12 Engineering Education, July 8, 2009, Washington, D.C. Available online at http://www.nae.edu/File.aspx?id=15169. (January 22, 2010)

Dugger, W.E. Jr. 2007. The status of technology education in the United States: a triennial report of the findings from the states. The Technology Teacher 67(1): 14–21.

Finn, C., L Julian, and M.J. Petrilli. 2006. The State of State Standards—2006. Thomas B. Fordham Foundation. Available online at http://www.edexcellence.net/doc/State%20of%20State%20Standards2006FINAL.pdf. (accessed March 10, 2010)

Harris, D.N., and M. Goertz. 2008. The potential effects of “high-quality and uniform” standards: Lessons from a synthesis of previous research and proposals for a new research agenda. A Final Report to the National Research Council. Available online at http://www7.nationalacademies.org/cfe/Harris%20Goertz%20Paper.pdf. (accessed May 19, 2010)

ITEA (International Technology Education Association). 2000. Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology. Reston, VA.: ITEA.

NAEd (National Academy of Education). 2009. Standards, Assessments, and Accountability. Education Policy White Paper. Available online at http://www.naeducation.org/Standards_Assessments_Accountability_White_Paper.pdf. (January 27, 2010)

NCES (National Center for Education Statistics). 2008. Digest of Education Statistics. Table 64, Public and private elementary and secondary teachers, enrollment, and pupil/teacher ratios: Selected years, fall 1955 through fall 2017. Available online at http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d08/tables/dt08_064.asp. (December 30, 2009)

NRC (National Research Council). 2002. Understanding the Influence of Standards: A Framework for Research in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Porter, A., M. Polikoff, and J. Smithson. 2008. Is There a De Facto National Curriculum: Evidence from State Content Standards? Paper presented at the workshop on Assessing the Role of K–12 Academic Standards in States, National Research Council Center for Education, January 18, 2008, Washington, D.C. Available online at http://www7.nationalacademies.org/cfe/Porter_Smithson%20State%20Standards%20Paper_Tables.pdf. (January 22, 2010)

Rothman, R. 2003. Imperfect Matches: The Alignment of Standards and Tests. Commissioned paper prepared for the National Research Council Committee on Test Design for K–12 Science Achievement. Available online at http://www7.nationalacademies.org/bota/Alignment%20of%20Standards.doc. (January 27, 2010)

Spillane, J. 2004. Standards Deviation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presented the research design of the study which included description of the respondents, instrument used, procedures followed and the statistical tool utilized for the data analysis and interpretation. Research Method Used To enable the researchers to gather the necessary data regarding the “Ameliorating Philippine Education Excellence: The Awareness and Coping Strategies of Universities to K-12 Program”, they made use of the descriptive method. Likewise, descriptive methods of research were defined as: Consist of set of gathered data or information, analyzed, summarized, and interpreted along certain lines of thought for the pursuit of a specific purpose or study The descriptive method is an appropriate method because data already exist; only waiting for the researchers to find particular ways of describing them, eliciting respondents, classifying, organizing, analyzing, interpreting and presenting them in textual and tabular form. As used in this research, data gathered and treated, are data on profile of universities representatives such as age, sex, civil status, highest educational attainment, position in the university and length in service; and university’s perspective such as classification of university, years of existence, number of enrollees, number of employees and main source of income together with the evaluation of the respondents with regards to the Ameliorating Philippine

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