Chicago/Turabian Basics: Notes
Why we include in-text citations and notes
Researchers include brief citations in their writing to acknowledge references to other people’s work. Generally, Chicago uses either footnotes or endnotes (or both) to give credit in text.
- Indicated by a superscript numeral in the text
- Listed in the footnote/endnote in standard font size
- Numbered consecutively
- Placed at the end of a sentence/clause
- Placed after quotation marks and punctuation…
- …Except dashes, where they are placed before
Example of references cited in text:
Great efforts have been put forth to save giant pandas in recent decades. The Chan Foundation for Panda Livelihood contributed over $20,000 to the San Diego Zoo last year to ensure that its Panda Cam would operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.1 President Danny Chan said, “Now people from all over the world can see the fascinating behavior of pandas, such as eating bamboo and sleeping whenever they want.”2
Example of corresponding notes:
1. Danny Chan. My Philanthropic Life: Helping the World Through Panda Rescues (New York: Scribner), 123.
2. Michele Kirschenbaum, “How One Man Saved Many Pandas,” Journal of Animal News 67 (2014): 12.
This chapter provides a general overview of formatting notes using the Chicago Manual of Style. For complete information, refer to Section 14 of the CMoS.
Note structure for a book
*Note: The following author formatting can be applied to other source types, as well.
First name Last name, Book Title (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication): Pages Cited.
Two or three authors
First name Last name and First name Last name, Book Title (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication): Pages Cited.
Four or more authors
￼First name Last name et al., Book Title (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication): Pages Cited.
Editor/translator/compiler with no author
￼First name Last name ed./trans./comp., Book Title (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication): Pages Cited.
*Also see page 2 of this guide.
Editor/translator/compiler with an author
￼Author First name Last name, Book Title, ed./trans./comp. First name Last name (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication): Pages Cited.
Note structure for a scholarly journal article
￼First name Last name, “Article Title,” Journal Title Volume, no. Issue (Year of Publication): Page(s).
￼￼First name Last name, “Article Title,” Journal Title Volume, no. Issue (Year of Publication): Page(s), doi: XXXX OR URL.
Note structure for a newspaper/magazine article
￼First name Last name, “Article Title,” Publication Title, Month Date, Year of Publication, Page(s).
Note structure for a thesis or dissertation
First name Last name, “Title of Dissertation” (PhD diss., University Name, Year).
*The CMoS has many suggestions for formatting notes of musical recordings. See Section 14.276.
Note structure for a musical recording
￼First name Last name or Group, Recording Title, recorded Month Date, Year.
Tips for Formatting Your Bibliography
Once you’ve compiled your footnotes or endnotes, you may need to compile these references in a bibliography.
Chicago style bibliographies are:
- Arranged alphabetically
- Placed at the end of a paper, before the index
- Formatted with the word “Bibliography” centered at the top of the page
- You may also use “Works Cited” or “Literature Cited” if works not used in your paper are not listed on this page.
Unitec uses the Chicago style called the notes system, or Chicago 16th A. It involves the use of footnotes and a bibliography.
Place a footnote at the bottom of the page on which your referenced idea appears. Footnotes usually contain page number(s) so anyone reading your work can easily find the quote, paraphrase or idea which you are referencing.
If you reference the same source more than once, use a shortened footnote. Some examples are given on this guide. For more explanation, see Repetition of References.
At the end of your assignment, essay or project is a bibliography containing the full details of each source. The list should be in alphabetical order and include the author/editor, date, title and publication information. References over one line long should use a hanging indent to indent the second and following lines.
When using another's ideas or words in your assignment or project, you should include a footnote citation to the original work. Footnotes are numbered consecutively (from 1....) within the text, and the footnote itself appears at the bottom of the page containing the reference.
Each individual footnote should be indented on the first line.
Example of a direct quote (of fewer than 40 words)
Text: David Watkins said " The two other principle buildings on the Acropolis, the Propylaea and the Erichtheion"1...
Footnote: 1. David Watkins, A History of Western Architecture, 2nd ed. (London: Laurence King, 1996), 25.
Example of a long direct quote (more than 40 words)
Long direct quotations should be introduced by an informative sentence, usually followed by a colon and indented 5 spaces from the left margin. Indenting the text means quotation marks are not required.
Text: Lefaivre and Tzonis state:
The first steps towards a new approach of conceiving cities occurred during the first phase of the revolution of
modern architecture in the works of Christine de Pisan (c. 1410), Leon Battista Alberti (1440-1472, 1485),
Filarete (1451-46) and Francesco di Girorgio Martin (1474-1482).2
Footnote: 2. Laine Lefaivre and Alexander Tzonis, The Emergence of Modern Architecture: A Documentary History from 1000 to 1810, (London: Routlege, 2004), 25.
Example of an indirect quote (an indirect quote is when you summarize or paraphrase using your own words)
Text: According to Christoph Affentranger, wood panel type products were not invented until the early 20th century.3
Footnote: 3. Christoph Affentranger, "Building Simply with Wood," in Building Simply, ed. Christian Schittich
(Birkhauser: Institut für Internationale Architektur-Dokumentation, 2005), 30.
At the end of your assignment, essay or project you are required to include a bibliography containing the full details of each work you have cited in your notes as well as any work that was consulted but not cited. The list should be in alphabetical order and include the author/editor, date, title and publication information. The first line of the reference should be flush with the margin. Second and subsequent lines should be indented.
Affentranger, Christoph. "Building Simply with Wood." In Building Simply, edited by Christian Schittich, 27-36.
Birkhauser: Institut für Internationale Architektur-Dokumentation, 2005.
1810. London: Routledge, 2004.
Watkins, David. A History of Western Architecture. 2nd ed. London: Laurence King, 1996.