Show Essay On Pollution Pollutants

For other uses, see Pollution (disambiguation).

For the academic journal, see Environmental Pollution (journal).

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.[1] Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. In 2015, pollution killed 9 million people in the world.[2][3]

History

Air pollution has always accompanied civilizations. Pollution started from prehistoric times when man created the first fires. According to a 1983 article in the journal Science, "soot" found on ceilings of prehistoric caves provides ample evidence of the high levels of pollution that was associated with inadequate ventilation of open fires."[4] Metal forging appears to be a key turning point in the creation of significant air pollution levels outside the home. Core samples of glaciers in Greenland indicate increases in pollution associated with Greek, Roman and Chinese metal production,[5] but at that time the pollution was comparatively small and could be handled by nature.[citation needed]

Urban pollution

The burning of coal and wood, and the presence of many horses in concentrated areas made the cities the primary sources of pollution. The Industrial Revolution brought an infusion of untreated chemicals and wastes into local streams that served as the water supply. King Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London in 1272, after its smoke became a problem.[6][7] But the fuel was so common in England that this earliest of names for it was acquired because it could be carted away from some shores by the wheelbarrow.

It was the industrial revolution that gave birth to environmental pollution as we know it today. London also recorded one of the earlier extreme cases of water quality problems with the Great Stink on the Thames of 1858, which led to construction of the London sewerage system soon afterward. Pollution issues escalated as population growth far exceeded view ability of neighborhoods to handle their waste problem. Reformers began to demand sewer systems, and clean water.[8]

In 1870, the sanitary conditions in Berlin were among the worst in Europe. August Bebel recalled conditions before a modern sewer system was built in the late 1870s:

"Waste-water from the houses collected in the gutters running alongside the curbs and emitted a truly fearsome smell. There were no public toilets in the streets or squares. Visitors, especially women, often became desperate when nature called. In the public buildings the sanitary facilities were unbelievably primitive....As a metropolis, Berlin did not emerge from a state of barbarism into civilization until after 1870."[9]

The primitive conditions were intolerable for a world national capital, and the Imperial German government brought in its scientists, engineers and urban planners to not only solve the deficiencies but to forge Berlin as the world's model city. A British expert in 1906 concluded that Berlin represented "the most complete application of science, order and method of public life," adding "it is a marvel of civic administration, the most modern and most perfectly organized city that there is."[10]

The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense quantities of coal gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste. Chicago and Cincinnati were the first two American cities to enact laws ensuring cleaner air in 1881. Pollution became a major issue in the United States in the early twentieth century, as progressive reformers took issue with air pollution caused by coal burning, water pollution caused by bad sanitation, and street pollution caused by the 3 million horses who worked in American cities in 1900, generating large quantities of urine and manure. As historian Martin Melosi notes, The generation that first saw automobiles replacing the horses saw cars as "miracles of cleanliness.".[11] By the 1940s, however, automobile-caused smog was a major issue in Los Angeles.[12]

Other cities followed around the country until early in the 20th century, when the short lived Office of Air Pollution was created under the Department of the Interior. Extreme smog events were experienced by the cities of Los Angeles and Donora, Pennsylvania in the late 1940s, serving as another public reminder.[13] Air pollution would continue to be a problem in England, especially later during the industrial revolution, and extending into the recent past with the Great Smog of 1952.

Awareness of atmospheric pollution spread widely after World War II, with fears triggered by reports of radioactive fallout from atomic warfare and testing.[14] Then a non-nuclear event, The Great Smog of 1952 in London, killed at least 4000 people.[15] This prompted some of the first major modern environmental legislation, The Clean Air Act of 1956.

Pollution began to draw major public attention in the United States between the mid-1950s and early 1970s, when Congress passed the Noise Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the National Environmental Policy Act.[16]

Severe incidents of pollution helped increase consciousness. PCB dumping in the Hudson River resulted in a ban by the EPA on consumption of its fish in 1974. Long-term dioxin contamination at Love Canal starting in 1947 became a national news story in 1978 and led to the Superfund legislation of 1980.[17] The pollution of industrial land gave rise to the name brownfield, a term now common in city planning.

The development of nuclear science introduced radioactive contamination, which can remain lethally radioactive for hundreds of thousands of years. Lake Karachay, named by the Worldwatch Institute as the "most polluted spot" on earth, served as a disposal site for the Soviet Union throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Chelyabinsk, Russia, is considered the "Most polluted place on the planet".[18]

Nuclear weapons continued to be tested in the Cold War, especially in the earlier stages of their development. The toll on the worst-affected populations and the growth since then in understanding about the critical threat to human health posed by radioactivity has also been a prohibitive complication associated with nuclear power. Though extreme care is practiced in that industry, the potential for disaster suggested by incidents such as those at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl pose a lingering specter of public mistrust. Worldwide publicity has been intense on those disasters.[19] Widespread support for test ban treaties has ended almost all nuclear testing in the atmosphere.[20]

International catastrophes such as the wreck of the Amoco Cadiz oil tanker off the coast of Brittany in 1978 and the Bhopal disaster in 1984 have demonstrated the universality of such events and the scale on which efforts to address them needed to engage. The borderless nature of atmosphere and oceans inevitably resulted in the implication of pollution on a planetary level with the issue of global warming. Most recently the term persistent organic pollutant (POP) has come to describe a group of chemicals such as PBDEs and PFCs among others. Though their effects remain somewhat less well understood owing to a lack of experimental data, they have been detected in various ecological habitats far removed from industrial activity such as the Arctic, demonstrating diffusion and bioaccumulation after only a relatively brief period of widespread use.

A much more recently discovered problem is the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, a huge concentration of plastics, chemical sludge and other debris which has been collected into a large area of the Pacific Ocean by the North Pacific Gyre. This is a less well known pollution problem than the others described above, but nonetheless has multiple and serious consequences such as increasing wildlife mortality, the spread of invasive species and human ingestion of toxic chemicals. Organizations such as 5 Gyres have researched the pollution and, along with artists like Marina DeBris, are working toward publicizing the issue.

Pollution introduced by light at night is becoming a global problem, more severe in urban centres, but nonetheless contaminating also large territories, far away from towns.[21]

Growing evidence of local and global pollution and an increasingly informed public over time have given rise to environmentalism and the environmental movement, which generally seek to limit human impact on the environment.

Forms of pollution

The major forms of pollution are listed below along with the particular contaminant relevant to each of them:

  • Light pollution: includes light trespass, over-illumination and astronomical interference.
  • Littering: the criminal throwing of inappropriate man-made objects, unremoved, onto public and private properties.
  • Noise pollution: which encompasses roadway noise, aircraft noise, industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar.
  • Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground leakage. Among the most significant soil contaminants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals, MTBE,[22]herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons.
  • Radioactive contamination, resulting from 20th century activities in atomic physics, such as nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research, manufacture and deployment. (See alpha emitters and actinides in the environment.)
  • Thermal pollution, is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence, such as use of water as coolant in a power plant.
  • Visual pollution, which can refer to the presence of overhead power lines, motorway billboards, scarred landforms (as from strip mining), open storage of trash, municipal solid waste or space debris.
  • Water pollution, by the discharge of wastewater from commercial and industrial waste (intentionally or through spills) into surface waters; discharges of untreated domestic sewage, and chemical contaminants, such as chlorine, from treated sewage; release of waste and contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters (including urban runoff and agricultural runoff, which may contain chemical fertilizers and pesticides); waste disposal and leaching into groundwater; eutrophication and littering.
  • Plastic pollution: involves the accumulation of plastic products in the environment that adversely affects wildlife, wildlife habitat, or humans.

Pollutants

Main article: Pollutant

A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil. Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: its chemical nature, the concentration and the persistence.

Cost of pollution

Pollution has cost.[23][24][25] Manufacturing activities that cause air pollution impose health and clean-up costs on the whole of society, whereas the neighbors of an individual who chooses to fire-proof his home may benefit from a reduced risk of a fire spreading to their own homes. A manufacturing activity that causes air pollution is an example of a negative externality in production. A negative externality in production occurs “when a firm’s production reduces the well-being of others who are not compensated by the firm."[26] For example, if a laundry firm exists near a polluting steel manufacturing firm, there will be increased costs for the laundry firm because of the dirt and smoke produced by the steel manufacturing firm.[27] If external costs exist, such as those created by pollution, the manufacturer will choose to produce more of the product than would be produced if the manufacturer were required to pay all associated environmental costs. Because responsibility or consequence for self-directed action lies partly outside the self, an element of externalization is involved. If there are external benefits, such as in public safety, less of the good may be produced than would be the case if the producer were to receive payment for the external benefits to others. However, goods and services that involve negative externalities in production, such as those that produce pollution, tend to be over-produced and underpriced since the externality is not being priced into the market.[26]

Pollution can also create costs for the firms producing the pollution. Sometimes firms choose, or are forced by regulation, to reduce the amount of pollution that they are producing. The associated costs of doing this are called abatement costs, or marginal abatement costs if measured by each additional unit.[28] In 2005 pollution abatement capital expenditures and operating costs in the US amounted to nearly $27 million.[29]

Socially Optimal Level of Pollution

Society derives some indirect utility from pollution, otherwise there would be no incentive to pollute. This utility comes from the consumption of goods and services that create pollution. Therefore, it is important that policymakers attempt to balance these indirect benefits with the costs of pollution in order to achieve an efficient outcome.[30]

It is possible to use environmental economics to determine which level of pollution is deemed the social optimum. For economists, pollution is an “external cost and occurs only when one or more individuals suffer a loss of welfare,” however, there exists a socially optimal level of pollution at which welfare is maximized.[31] This is because consumers derive utility from the good or service manufactured, which will outweigh the social cost of pollution until a certain point. At this point the damage of one extra unit of pollution to society, the marginal cost of pollution, is exactly equal to the marginal benefit of consuming one more unit of the good or service.[32]

In markets with pollution, or other negative externalities in production, the free market equilibrium will not account for the costs of pollution on society. If the social costs of pollution are higher than the private costs incurred by the firm, then the true supply curve will be higher. The point at which the social marginal cost and market demand intersect gives the socially optimal level of pollution. At this point, the quantity will be lower and the price will be higher in comparison to the free market equilibrium.[32] Therefore, the free market outcome could be considered a market failure because it “does not maximize efficiency”.[26]

This model can be used as a basis to evaluate different methods of internalizing the externality. Some examples include tariffs, a carbon tax and cap and trade systems.

Sources and causes

Air pollution comes from both natural and human-made (anthropogenic) sources. However, globally human-made pollutants from combustion, construction, mining, agriculture and warfare are increasingly significant in the air pollution equation.[33]

Motor vehicle emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution.[34][35][36]China, United States, Russia, India[37]Mexico, and Japan are the world leaders in air pollution emissions. Principal stationary pollution sources include chemical plants, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries,[38]petrochemical plants, nuclear waste disposal activity, incinerators, large livestock farms (dairy cows, pigs, poultry, etc.), PVC factories, metals production factories, plastics factories, and other heavy industry. Agricultural air pollution comes from contemporary practices which include clear felling and burning of natural vegetation as well as spraying of pesticides and herbicides[39]

About 400 million metric tons of hazardous wastes are generated each year.[40] The United States alone produces about 250 million metric tons.[41] Americans constitute less than 5% of the world's population, but produce roughly 25% of the world’s CO2,[42] and generate approximately 30% of world’s waste.[43][44] In 2007, China has overtaken the United States as the world's biggest producer of CO2,[45] while still far behind based on per capita pollution - ranked 78th among the world's nations.[46]

In February 2007, a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), representing the work of 2,500 scientists, economists, and policymakers from more than 120 countries, said that humans have been the primary cause of global warming since 1950. Humans have ways to cut greenhouse gas emissions and avoid the consequences of global warming, a major climate report concluded. But to change the climate, the transition from fossil fuels like coal and oil needs to occur within decades, according to the final report this year from the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).[47]

Some of the more common soil contaminants are chlorinated hydrocarbons (CFH), heavy metals (such as chromium, cadmium–found in rechargeable batteries, and lead–found in lead paint, aviation fuel and still in some countries, gasoline), MTBE, zinc, arsenic and benzene. In 2001 a series of press reports culminating in a book called Fateful Harvest unveiled a widespread practice of recycling industrial byproducts into fertilizer, resulting in the contamination of the soil with various metals. Ordinary municipal landfills are the source of many chemical substances entering the soil environment (and often groundwater), emanating from the wide variety of refuse accepted, especially substances illegally discarded there, or from pre-1970 landfills that may have been subject to little control in the U.S. or EU. There have also been some unusual releases of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, commonly called dioxins for simplicity, such as TCDD.[48]

Pollution can also be the consequence of a natural disaster. For example, hurricanes often involve water contamination from sewage, and petrochemical spills from ruptured boats or automobiles. Larger scale and environmental damage is not uncommon when coastal oil rigs or refineries are involved. Some sources of pollution, such as nuclear power plants or oil tankers, can produce widespread and potentially hazardous releases when accidents occur.

In the case of noise pollution the dominant source class is the motor vehicle, producing about ninety percent of all unwanted noise worldwide.

Effects

Human health

Further information: Soil pollution § Health effects, Toxic hotspots, and List of pollution-related diseases

Adverse air quality can kill many organisms including humans. Ozone pollution can cause respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, throat inflammation, chest pain, and congestion. Water pollution causes approximately 14,000 deaths per day, mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries. An estimated 500 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet,[52][53] Over ten million people in India fell ill with waterborne illnesses in 2013, and 1,535 people died, most of them children.[54] Nearly 500 million Chinese lack access to safe drinking water.[55] A 2010 analysis estimated that 1.2 million people died prematurely each year in China because of air pollution.[56] The WHO estimated in 2007 that air pollution causes half a million deaths per year in India.[57] Studies have estimated that the number of people killed annually in the United States could be over 50,000.[58]

Oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes. Noise pollution induces hearing loss, high blood pressure, stress, and sleep disturbance. Mercury has been linked to developmental deficits in children and neurologic symptoms. Older people are majorly exposed to diseases induced by air pollution. Those with heart or lung disorders are at additional risk. Children and infants are also at serious risk. Lead and other heavy metals have been shown to cause neurological problems. Chemical and radioactive substances can causecancer and as well asbirth defects.

An October 2017 study by the Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health found that global pollution, specifically toxic air, water, soils and workplaces, kill nine million people annually, which is triple the number of deaths caused by AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined, and 15 times higher than deaths caused by wars and other forms of human violence.[59] The study concluded that "pollution is one of the great existential challenges of the Anthropocene era. Pollution endangers the stability of the Earth’s support systems and threatens the continuing survival of human societies."[3]

Environment

Pollution has been found to be present widely in the environment. There are a number of effects of this:

Environmental health information

The Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP)[60] at the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) maintains a comprehensive toxicology and environmental health web site that includes access to resources produced by TEHIP and by other government agencies and organizations. This web site includes links to databases, bibliographies, tutorials, and other scientific and consumer-oriented resources. TEHIP also is responsible for the Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET)[61] an integrated system of toxicology and environmental health databases that are available free of charge on the web.

TOXMAP is a Geographic Information System (GIS) that is part of TOXNET. TOXMAP uses maps of the United States to help users visually explore data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory and Superfund Basic Research Programs.

Worker productivity

A number of studies show that pollution has an adverse effect on the productivity of both indoor and outdoor workers.[62][63][64]

Regulation and monitoring

Main article: Regulation and monitoring of pollution

To protect the environment from the adverse effects of pollution, many nations worldwide have enacted legislation to regulate various types of pollution as well as to mitigate the adverse effects of pollution.

Pollution control

Pollution control is a term used in environmental management. It means the control of emissions and effluents into air, water or soil. Without pollution control, the waste products from overconsumption, heating, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation and other human activities, whether they accumulate or disperse, will degrade the environment. In the hierarchy of controls, pollution prevention and waste minimization are more desirable than pollution control. In the field of land development, low impact development is a similar technique for the prevention of urban runoff.

Practices

Pollution control devices

Perspectives

The earliest precursor of pollution generated by life forms would have been a natural function of their existence. The attendant consequences on viability and population levels fell within the sphere of natural selection. These would have included the demise of a population locally or ultimately, species extinction. Processes that were untenable would have resulted in a new balance brought about by changes and adaptations. At the extremes, for any form of life, consideration of pollution is superseded by that of survival.

For humankind, the factor of technology is a distinguishing and critical consideration, both as an enabler and an additional source of byproducts. Short of survival, human concerns include the range from quality of life to health hazards. Since science holds experimental demonstration to be definitive, modern treatment of toxicity or environmental harm involves defining a level at which an effect is observable. Common examples of fields where practical measurement is crucial include automobile emissions control, industrial exposure (e.g. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) PELs), toxicology (e.g. LD50), and medicine (e.g. medication and radiation doses).

"The solution to pollution is dilution", is a dictum which summarizes a traditional approach to pollution management whereby sufficiently diluted pollution is not harmful.[66][67] It is well-suited to some other modern, locally scoped applications such as laboratory safety procedure and hazardous material release emergency management. But it assumes that the dilutant is in virtually unlimited supply for the application or that resulting dilutions are acceptable in all cases.

Such simple treatment for environmental pollution on a wider scale might have had greater merit in earlier centuries when physical survival was often the highest imperative, human population and densities were lower, technologies were simpler and their byproducts more benign. But these are often no longer the case. Furthermore, advances have enabled measurement of concentrations not possible before. The use of statistical methods in evaluating outcomes has given currency to the principle of probable harm in cases where assessment is warranted but resorting to deterministic models is impractical or infeasible. In addition, consideration of the environment beyond direct impact on human beings has gained prominence.

Yet in the absence of a superseding principle, this older approach predominates practices throughout the world. It is the basis by which to gauge concentrations of effluent for legal release, exceeding which penalties are assessed or restrictions applied. One such superseding principle is contained in modern hazardous waste laws in developed countries, as the process of diluting hazardous waste to make it non-hazardous is usually a regulated treatment process.[68] Migration from pollution dilution to elimination in many cases can be confronted by challenging economical and technological barriers.

Greenhouse gases and global warming

Main article: Global warming

Carbon dioxide, while vital for photosynthesis, is sometimes referred to as pollution, because raised levels of the gas in the atmosphere are affecting the Earth's climate. Disruption of the environment can also highlight the connection between areas of pollution that would normally be classified separately, such as those of water and air. Recent studies have investigated the potential for long-term rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide to cause slight but critical increases in the acidity of ocean waters, and the possible effects of this on marine ecosystems.

Most polluting industries

The Pure Earth, an international non-for-profit organization dedicated to eliminating life-threatening pollution in the developing world, issues an annual list of some of the world's most polluting industries.[71]

World’s worst polluted places

The Pure Earth issues an annual list of some of the world's worst polluted places.[72]

  • Agbogbloshie, Ghana
  • Chernobyl*, Ukraine
  • Citarum River, Indonesia
  • Dzershinsk*, Russia
  • Hazaribagh, Bangladesh
  • Kabwe*, Zambia
  • Kalimantan, Indonesia
  • Matanza Riachuelo, Argentina
  • Niger River Delta, Nigeria
  • Norilsk*, Russia

See also

References

  1. ^"Pollution - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. 2010-08-13. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 
  2. ^Beil, Laura (15 November 2017). "Pollution killed 9 million people in 2015". Sciencenews.org. Retrieved 1 December 2017. 
  3. ^ abCarrington, Damian (October 20, 2017). "Global pollution kills 9m a year and threatens 'survival of human societies'". The Guardian. Retrieved October 20, 2017. 
  4. ^Spengler, John D.; Sexton, K. A. (1983). "Indoor Air Pollution: A Public Health Perspective". Science. 221 (4605): 9–17 [p. 9]. doi:10.1126/science.6857273. 
  5. ^Hong, Sungmin; et al. (1996). "History of Ancient Copper Smelting Pollution During Roman and Medieval Times Recorded in Greenland Ice". Science. 272 (5259): 246–249 [p. 248]. doi:10.1126/science.272.5259.246. 
  6. ^David Urbinato (Summer 1994). "London's Historic "Pea-Soupers"". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 2006-08-02. 
  7. ^"Deadly Smog". PBS. 2003-01-17. Retrieved 2006-08-02. 
  8. ^Lee Jackson, Dirty Old London: The Victorian Fight Against Filth (2014)
  9. ^Cited in David Clay Large, Berlin (2000) pp 17-18
  10. ^Hugh Chisholm (1910). The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition. p. 786. 
  11. ^Patrick Allitt, A Climate of Crisis: America in the Age of Environmentalism (2014) p 206
  12. ^Jeffry M. Diefendorf; Kurkpatrick Dorsey (2009). City, Country, Empire: Landscapes in Environmental History. University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 44–49. 
  13. ^Fleming, James R.; Knorr, Bethany R. "History of the Clean Air Act". American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2006-02-14. 
  14. ^Patrick Allitt, A Climate of Crisis: America in the Age of Environmentalism (2014) pp 15-21
  15. ^1952: London fog clears after days of chaos (BBC News)
  16. ^John Tarantino. "Environmental Issues". The Environmental Blog. Archived from the original on 2012-01-11. Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  17. ^Judith A. Layzer, "Love Canal: hazardous waste and politics of fear" in Layzer, The Environmental Case (CQ Press, 2012) pp: 56-82.
  18. ^Lenssen, "Nuclear Waste: The Problem that Won't Go Away", Worldwatch Institute, Washington, D.C., 1991: 15.
  19. ^Friedman, Sharon M. (2011). "Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima: An analysis of traditional and new media coverage of nuclear accidents and radiation". Bulletin of the atomic scientists. 67 (5): 55–65. doi:10.1177/0096340211421587.
Air pollution in the US, 1973
Blue drain and yellow fish symbol used by the UK Environment Agency to raise awareness of the ecological impacts of contaminating surface drainage.
A visual comparison of the free market and socially optimal outcomes.
Air pollution produced by ships may alter clouds, affecting global temperatures.
An industrial area, with a power plant, south of Yangzhou's downtown, China
Overview of main health effects on humans from some common types of pollution.[49][50][51]
A Mobile Pollution Check Vehicle in India.
Historical and projected CO2 emissions by country (as of 2005).
Source: Energy Information Administration.[69][70]

Pollution refers to the mixing of contaminants or pollutants (either foreign substances or naturally occurring contaminants) into the natural resources and environment which causes various adverse changes and affects lives on the earth.

Essay on Pollution

Pollution in India is a big environmental issue which everyone must be aware of. Our kids and school going children of Class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 usually get topic of pollution to write essay or recite speech on this. Parents should know about the types, causes and prevention measures of the pollution in order to help their kids. We have provided below some essay on pollution to help you and your kids. You can select any pollution essay according to the need and requirement:

Air Pollution | Water Pollution | Soil Pollution | Noise Pollution

Pollution Essay 1 (100 words)

Pollution is the contamination of the natural environment which exists around us and helps in normal living. Any type of pollution in our natural surroundings and ecosystem causes insecurity, health disorders and discomfort in normal living. It disorganizes the natural systems and thus disturbs the nature’s balance.

The pollutants or elements of pollution are foreign substances or waste materials created by the human beings and pollute the natural resources like air, water or soil etc. The chemical nature, concentration and long persistence of the pollutants continually disturbs the ecosystem for years. The pollutants can be poisonous gases, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, noise, organic compounds and radioactive materials.

Pollution Essay 2 (100 words)

As we all know that our environment is very necessary for our healthy existence on the earth. A healthy environment depends on the good habits of human beings and the circumstances we create. Human, animal, plants, earth and environment are indirectly connected to each other and necessary for the existence of healthy life here.

However, by any means if our environment gets affected negatively, creates lots of problems and many challenges in living a simple and healthy life. Our environment acts as a natural world for us and provides a protection to us from the natural calamities. However, it becomes helpless in protecting us if we disturbs its natural cycle and force it to harm us.

Pollution Essay 3 (150 words)

Pollution is the mixing of some harmful or poisonous materials into the natural resources available on the earth. It affects the ordinary living of the living things on this planet by disturbing the natural life cycle. Pollution can be of many types like noise pollution, air pollution, soil pollution, water pollution, etc. Air pollution is increasing day by day because of the growing number of automobiles, release of poisonous gases, smoke from industrial companies, finely dissolved solids, liquid aerosols, etc in the atmosphere. The air we breathe every moment causes several lungs disorders.

In this way soil and water pollution is also cause by the mixing up of the sewage water (having germs, viruses, harmful chemicals, etc) in drinking water, some dangerous agrochemicals such as pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, organic compounds like ether, benzene, some radioactive materials including radium and thorium, solid wastes (industrial ashes, rubbish, garbage), etc. We need to follow all the control measures implemented by the government to check its harmful effects.


Pollution Essay 4 (150 words)

Environmental pollution is the condition when the natural cycle of our environment gets disturbed and harms us. Some harmful environmental contaminants created by us in the form of smoke, solid or liquid wastes get intermingled into the environment and pollute it. It is only human who can check the environmental pollution by limiting their bad activities. Each and every person here is responsible for the environmental pollution in indirect way. Unknowingly we all are creating problems and challenges to the environment.

Some bad chemical compositions which we use on daily basis get intermingled into the environment and disturb its natural functioning and natural processes which directly affect our health. Human beings are considered as the most intelligent living being on the earth however it never means that they should interfere with the nature’s law of ecological balance. Our environment and we, both are incomplete without the helps of each other. We should try our best to maintain the healthy environment in order to continue the natural processes easily.

Pollution Essay 5 (200 words)

Pollution has become a major environmental issue as it has created lots of health hazards to the people and animals of any age group. In the recent years the rate of pollution is increasing very sharply because of the industrialized waste material mixing out directly into the soil, air and water. However, in our country full attention is not getting paid to control it. It needs to be tackle seriously otherwise our future generations would suffer a lot.

Pollution is classified into many categories according to the natural resources getting affected such as air pollution, soil pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, etc. Rate of pollution is increasing due to the selfishness of the human being to earn more money and to fulfill some unnecessary wishes. In the modern era where technological advancement is given more priority by the people, everyone has forgotten the real discipline of life.

Continuous and unnecessary cutting down of the forests, urbanization and large production through industrialization has involved as a huge causes of the pollution. Harmful and poisonous wastes created from such activities causes irreversible changes to the soil, air and water which ultimately push lives towards pain. This big social issue needs a public level social awareness programme to destroy by its root to get complete relief.


Pollution Essay 6 (200 words)

Environmental pollution is the biggest problem in the modern time we are facing. It affects us in all aspects such as socially, economically, physically, mentally and intellectually. Contamination of the natural environment gives birth to the lots of diseases which make human beings weak mentally and physically. Many of us are not well aware of the pollution even they do not know how they are creating problems to the environment and polluting it. This problem is becoming worse day by day because of the new technologies growth and development. Many new companies are opening in the industry and do more to grow their business in the competitive field.

Environmental pollution is not the problem only one country however it is the issue of whole world, so it needs effort by all of us together to correct it. If it is not taken under control, it may affect the whole universe to a great extent in the future. Environmental pollution is getting big by increasing level of pollution of water, air, sound and land. Increasing in the number of vehicles on the roads causes air pollution, increasing in the number of factories causes water pollution and land pollution. So, it needs limitation over all the causes of the environmental pollution.


 

Pollution Essay 7 (250 words)

The meaning of word pollution means to make things dirty. Accordingly the pollution of natural resources causes imbalance in the ecosystem. Currently we have been fatally surrounded by the major issue of environmental pollution. Pollution is the addition of any foreign or poisonous substances into the environment at very fast rate than the environment natural accommodation. The main causes of this social devil are the industrialization, deforestation and urbanization, the by-products of which causes contamination to the natural resources used by the living things on the earth as a routine of normal life.

Air pollution, water pollution and soil pollution are the most dangerous forms of pollution causing direct heath disorders to the human beings. We have no safe water to drink, pure air to inhale and pollution free land to crop. This widely spreading pollution need to be taken under control for the healthy survival of life on the planet in future. Different types of pollutants which are disturbing our natural ecosystem are gases (NO, SO2, CO2, CO, NO2), halogens (iodine, chlorine, bromine), deposited matters (dust, smog, grit), agrochemicals (insecticide, pesticides, herbicides), noise, photochemical oxidants (photochemical smog, peroxyacetyl nitrate, ozone, nitrogen oxides), organic compounds from industries (acetic acid, benzene, ether), radioactive materials (radium, thorium), some solid wastes (ash, garbage), etc.

Pollution is the big side effect of the industrialized societies of the modern world where industrial development and green house effect have adversely affected the ecosystem. Life supporting systems are speedily getting converted into the life destroying system because of the industrialization. Human greediness and misuse of freeness of doing anything lead them towards serious degradation and mismanagement of resources.


 

Pollution Essay 8 (250 words)

Earth is considered as the only planet suitable for the life existence in the whole universe. It gives us everything like air, water, land, plants, and sky for the healthy survival of the life. We cannot live here in the absence of all the basic components of life. In any case if the serious pollution problems occur, it causes hazardous to the life. Increasing number of vehicles on the roads and increasing demands of the usage of the petrol and diesel increases the risk of air pollution as petrol and diesel spread heavy amount of poisonous gases in the environment such as carbon monoxide, sulphur-dioxide, hydrocarbons, and many more gases are polluting the air. Now-a-days, a major threat to the life is due to the development of nuclear sciences.

The polluted air we breathe goes to our whole body and affect all the systems especially respiratory functions. It becomes the reason of origin of many diseases like cancer, respiratory problems, lungs disorders, bronchitis, asthma and many more. The increasing competitions of the nuclear experiments all over the world are creating the big threat of atmospheric balance destruction as this process releases lots of harmful chemicals, poisonous gases, and dust into the air which falls back again to the earth through acid rains and harms the growth of crops and life. This acid rain causes various harmful diseases to the human fraternity worldwide. Water pollution is increasing because of the direct drainage of industrial liquid wastes into the water of ocean, lakes, rivers, ponds and other water bodies. This water is used by the farmers in growing crops which we eat and disturb our physiological functioning.


 

Pollution Essay 9 (300 words)

Pollution has become the most serious issue as everyone is facing lots of health hazards in their daily life. Various types of pollutants from the industrial garbage and other activities are contaminating our natural resources like air, water, soil, etc. After being mixing into the soil, air and water, they are directly affecting the human being and animal body system and causing variety of lethal ailments to health. Noise pollution is affecting the listening system in the body as well as causing disturbance to the memory.

The rate of pollution in the cities is higher than the villages because of the vehicles transportation. Fumes arise from the running vehicles, factories and other industries are affecting the clean air of cities which is not fit for the breathing. Soiled water from the big sewage system, other garbage from the households, by-products from the factories and industries are directly mixing to the rivers, lake and oceans. Most of the solid wastes, garbage and other unused things are thrown away by the people on the land which cause soil pollution and affect the crop production. Most of the people in the cities spread noise pollution to a great extent during their birthday, marriage or other occasions just for their short time happiness. All the roads in the cities become full of traffic all through the day because of the increasing number of vehicles which are the reason of both air pollution and noise pollution.

Ultimately all the man made technological advancement is the big reason of all types of pollution on the earth. So, no one other than human, who is digging a pit of pollution worldwide and creating a serious problem for the living things on the earth. The quality of life is worsening day by day as pollution acts as a devil which causes various health ailments like high blood pressure, kidney disorders, respiratory disease, cancer, epidemics, skin diseases, etc.


 

Pollution Essay 10 (300 words)

Environmental pollution is the big issue now for the whole human fraternity on this planet today. We are continuously adding impurities to the environment unknowingly through our bad and careless activities. Environmental pollution affects the natural processes and living of human being. When we play with the natural cycles of the environment which consists of air, earth, water, land, plants and animals, it creates big challenges to us and makes healthy life almost impossible. It hampers the existence of both human and nature together as both are the completeness to each other.

The biggest issue to the environmental problem is the removal of forests and urbanization on that place because of the increasing pollution. Decreasing number of the plants day by day increasing the amount of carbon dioxide gas in the environment as plants are the main sources of the carbon dioxide gas utilization. Thus the increasing level of this gas in the environment causes global warming (increased climate temperature due to emissions of greenhouse gases) which in turn causes lots of problems and brings environmental and social changes in direct and indirect ways. The warming effect on the climate causes glaciers to melt, seasonal problems, decreasing agricultural productivity and many more.

Continuous warming of the earth may cause earth a day as a boiling pan and desert whole earth would be covered with ocean water means permanent destruction to the mankind. For our good health we need fresh and pure air to inhale, unpolluted food to eat, no noise pollution and unpolluted water to drink however all are not possible now. That’s why everyone of us are wasting more money into the medicines by making round and round of the hospitals instead of spending money to good health activities like eating fruits, joining health club, etc. So, the environmental issue need to be solved on urgent basis by the effort of all of us.


 

Pollution Essay 11 (400 words)

In the modern world of technological advancement, pollution has become a serious environmental issue affecting the lives on earth. Some of the most important types of the pollution are air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution and noise pollution. All types of the pollution are undoubtedly affecting the whole environment and ecosystem thus the quality of life. Our naturally beautiful environment on the earth is deteriorating day by day just by the foolish habits of the human beings.

The main reasons of the air pollution are the heavy emissions of harmful and poisonous gases arise from the increasing number of vehicles, factories and open burning. In the crowd of betterment of life, everyone wants to have well resources for their easy daily routine but they do not think a little bit about their natural surroundings. Most of the air pollution is carried out by the public transportation on daily basis. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are the toxic gases polluting the air and reducing the oxygen level in the environment.

Manufacturing factories are also the great contributor to the air pollution by meeting the growing demand of people. During the manufacturing process factories releases some toxic gases, heat and energy into the environment. Some other habits like open burning of household garbage, etc are also worsening the air quality. Air pollution causes respiratory disorders including lung cancer among human being and animals.

Water pollution is also a big issue directly affecting the marine life as they only depend on the nutrients found in the water for their survival. Gradual disappearance of the marine life would really affect the livelihood of human beings and animals. The reason of the water contamination is harmful wastes from factories, industries, sewage systems, farms, etc which are directly dumping into the main source of water like rivers, lakes and oceans. Drinking contaminated water causes serious health disorders to us.

Soil pollution is caused by the use of fertilizers, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides and other organic compounds. It indirectly affects our health as we eat eating materials produced in the soil. The source of noise pollution is the noise created from the heavy machinery, vehicles, radio, TV, speaker, etc which causes hearing problems and sometimes deafness. We should take care of our environment to maintain the natural ecosystem. It requires a joint effort from everyone to get control over the pollution so that we can get a healthy and unpolluted environment.


 

Pollution Essay 12 (400 words)

Environment pollution is the mixing of harmful pollutants into the environment causing disturbance to the natural processes and cycles. Various types of environmental pollution are categorized as the water pollution, air pollution, land pollution and noise pollution. Production of solid and liquid wastes on large scale from the industries, emissions of hazardous gases, deforestation, global warming, and many more problems originated by the human beings are the main reasons of increasing the environmental pollution. In the last one decade, there is a great increase in the level of environmental pollution and scenario has become worse than earlier.

In the whole universe, there is only one planet named earth provides facility of all basic elements required for the life existence. It gives us life and what we give it, pollution. However, it was much better that if we give it nothing but we give it pollution and contamination regularly. As we all live on this planet, we all are highly responsible for the maintenance of the earth. However, we all forget our responsibility and busy in our daily routine and competitions to just fulfill our needs in anyways. Fresh air and clean water are two most basic needs to sustain life but nothing of both is possible in the modern time. It seems that, after some decades here would be no man, no plants, no animals and no life.

All the natural gases in the environment make their balance by reacting each other. Some of them are used as a food by the plants like carbon dioxide. But, just imagine what happened when we start finishing plants. Decreasing number of plants causes less use of carbon dioxide which gets spread into the whole environment and in turn increases environmental temperature level and thus global warming. It again calls many problems and natural calamities like melting glaciers, flood, increasing water level in sea and ocean, and finally destruction of humanity from this planet. Just imagine, only decreasing number of plants may cause such a big problem which is not our only mistake. We are doing lots of such mistakes daily and it should not be a big surprise for us that one day the chance of life existence would be finished on this planet.

Still we have time, the get together effort of all of us may save the earth, environment and the life here. Environmental pollution needs a global level awareness and every one of us needs to understand our all mistakes, causes of pollution, ways to solve the problems created by it and most importantly how to stop the negative environmental changes and environmental pollution.

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